State and Local Government in America

While federal government receives most of the attention of media, the US political system has 50 more state governments and thousands of local governmental units. All of them offer bigger diversity and public participation at the local level. State governments appeared yet before the national government for some American cities were founded as early as the 17th century. Before the Revolution, 13 states had been political entities with their governments and constitutions. Today state governments actively influence the US politics. They partially ease the pressure laid on the federal government issuing their own legislation and providing for their territories.

State political structures include constitutions, governors, state legislatures, judicial systems, and bureaucracy. State constitutions may strongly differ from each other; on the other hand, they are easy to amend. States continually reform their constitutions adjusting them to the specifics of state government. Governors are at the helm of the state accountable for its daily operation. State legislators are responsible for representation, legislation, and control over the executive branch.

Among the local governments, we differentiate county governments and municipal governments. There are more than 3,000 county governments out of total 88,000 local units in the US. Functions of county governments vary from state to state; in some states, they deliver vital services, such as education or welfare. Counties are strong in rural areas that do not belong to any city of town. All public goods and services in the area may be arranged by county governments. As for municipal governments, they are much more numerous (about 20,000). They may take different forms, such as the mayor-council or the council-manager one. Municipal governments deliver all kinds of services to their towns taking into account that they are much larger than counties.

Posted in Political science | Tagged | Comments Off on State and Local Government in America

American Political Parties

The role of parties in the American political process shall not be underestimated. They directly influence elections, governing, and stabilizing political system on the whole. First US political parties emerged soon after the Republic had been established. By the end of the 19th century, party-like organizations called political machines greatly influenced voting. In the 20th century, political parties evolved together with the emerging welfare state.

The present two-party system was established in 1950 when the American Committee on Political Parties released the report on productivity and convenience of the approach. Only two strongest parties could dominate in elections; third parties participated as well but they would hardly win. The system was accepted, and today the two parties perform a range of functions. Besides pushing acts in the Congress, parties recruit political candidates and encourage voters to participate in political processes.

Structurally, political parties are divided into three parts – the party in government, the party in the electorate, and the party organization. The first definition refers to all the officials identified within the party. Party members at different levels are expected to coordinate to enact party’s proposals and gain the support of the electorate. Party in the electorate are the voters from within the party who can promote their candidates for legislative office. It allows voters to develop psychological attachment to a party. The party organization consists of structures that help it function day to day.

Today the party system continues to develop further. Many candidates employ their own organizations and parties seem to gradually weaken. However, the national committees are now service organizations, and their work can help parties gain more importance. The two-party system has proven to be resilient over the years, and any changes in this respect are unlikely.

Posted in Political science | Tagged | Comments Off on American Political Parties

American Bureaucracy

Bureaucracy is the administrative apparatus that controls the accomplishment of government policies. It is essential to implement executive orders into life to make sure that the state works properly. Max Weber gave more precise definition to bureaucracy describing it as an organization with several distinct features. It has jurisdictions and positions with a responsible authority. Clear hierarchy with supervision and subordination is required. In bureaucratic institutions, officials are accountable for their actions. Like any other administrative institutions, they have a written statute and competent experienced workforce who actually comply with the rules. Weber’s bureaucracy is a perfect type of organization. Bureaucratic organizations that function today are often less idealistic and messier in their practices.

The federal government has bureaucratic agencies at all levels. It consists of cabinet departments (the Department of Education, the Department of Justice etc.) that report directly to the president. The agencies within often have conflicting responsibilities that hamper implementation of executive orders. Many similar departments perform bureaucratic functions on the state level. Some state departments are constitutional bodies with separately elected officials that do not report to the governor. On the local level, bureaucracy is different; it depends on the type of state government and the size of the area. Local bureaucrats report to the state government but they solve entirely different problems than those at the federal or state level.

Though it assures a proper functioning of government, bureaucracy is routinely criticized. Bureaucrats are usually viewed as public officers with a low performance and high self-interest. Those in control institutions are often misunderstood because their activities are not as transparent as that of officials in service. Nevertheless, some scholars like Charles Goodsell or Richard Stillman attempt to debunk myths about bureaucracy in their writings.

Posted in Political science | Tagged | Comments Off on American Bureaucracy

American Judicial Politics

We often doubt that decisions of judges are driven exceptionally by law. No person can be completely devoid of a bias and subjective preferences even in their professional life. Judges are not an exception. Exploring the motives that drive judges in decision-making is the goal of judicial politics. The study also investigates the interaction between the court and other parts of the political system.

Judicial politics dates back to the early 20th century when legal realists argued that judges create laws based on their personal preferences. By now, we have three major theories explaining judicial decision-making – attitudinal, strategic, and institutional. The attitudinal model was defined by Jeffrey Segal and Harold Spaeth who argued that judges made the law instead of following it. Whether conservatives or liberals, judges are likely to vote according to their old beliefs and personality traits. The attitudinal model satisfactory predicted votes of Supreme Court judges so that it was a popular point of judicial politics in the 1990s until it was challenged by the strategic model.

The strategic model of judicial behavior states that judges cannot always vote out of their personal preferences without taking into account the context of the case. Besides, they cannot achieve their goals without a cooperation of their colleagues. A court decision is not a collection of personal opinions but the cooperation of people who want that decision to be implemented. In the strategic model, judges take into account plenty of external factors and predict the consequences of their decisions instead of acting on a whim within the attitudinal model.

In both models, individual goals of judges are important. The third model of historic institutionalism expands goals to the level of the Court. As an institution, the Court has its own rules. It interacts with other political institutions, and Court practices often determine which decision is acceptable and which one shall not pass.

Posted in Political science | Tagged | Comments Off on American Judicial Politics

Media and Politics

Mass media are a powerful regulator of social life, especially in the pre-election time or during a significant social change. The media become an information center and a place for discussion that assures democracy in the society. At the same time, media make room for speculation, harassment, and fraud that happen so often when the society is submerged in a heated debate. Though the impact of media on citizens is often controversial, it remains the major means of communication between politicians and the electorate. The public gets nearly all of political information from the media.

There are different types of media ownership – purely public, purely commercial, and mixed. Media that are not purely public are almost always controlled by political parties, which involves bias and threatens the democracy. Parties try to influence what people know, believe, and do politically, mainly through the propaganda. It is the hypodermic model of media effects common to post-totalitarian countries and weak new democracies.

The minimal media effect model presents an alternative view to the radical point of the hypodermic model. It implies that people’s loyalty to some parties remains steadfast irrespective of what media say about them. Besides, people are not persuaded as easily by the media as they are by their fellows of opinion leaders. The minimal effect of media is also questioned because there is little empirical evidence to support it. Instead, scholars favor the subtle effect model that is more comprehensive than previous two models.

The model of subtle effects implies that media does not dictate people what to think but rather determines their sphere of interest. It is no less important to create a shared focus of attention for millions of people if the media want to manipulate public opinion. The exposure of media influences people indirectly, which does not diminish its effect in any way.

Posted in Mass media, Political science | Tagged | Comments Off on Media and Politics

Write my research paper for me

 

If you have already spent a lot of time trying to find at least some information regarding such thing as write my research paper for me on the net, here is a more advantageous solution. Let the team of our highly qualified writers work on the task of writing a sample research paper. The advantages you will get are as follows: high quality of the services, timely delivery, affordable prices and 24/7 customer support.

As soon as you receive your first sample paper, you will see that working with us has a lot of benefits for you. Apart from the fact that you will receive a well-written example paper, you will also be able to catch a little break. As you have already realized, it means that you start planning what you are going to do in your leisure time. In other words, you can get together with your friends or watch a movie. Feel free to do whatever you want. We are going to provide you with everything you require in terms of quality academic writing assistance. Another aspect you should keep in mind that our services are available 24/7. When you have questions or want to clarify something, contact our customer support representatives. They will gladly help you. Having an assistant to help you with the assignment is always a benefit due to the fact that such option may help you complete the assignment even if you do not feel like doing it at the moment. Rely on us and you will definitely have less paper writing problems to deal with. We are ready to help you accomplish all those problematic assignments on time.

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged | Comments Off on Write my research paper for me

Thesis statement for sale

 

A lot of students believe that the easiest way to deal with thesis statement writing is to find a thesis statement for sale on the net. Well, the thing is that it is not quite so. Besides, there is a more beneficial option on hand with the help of which you will be able to get a properly written sample. In addition, you will be completely sure in its quality.

The question that might arise in your head is what to do in order to become one of our clients. There is absolutely nothing difficult about the order process which is why you will be through with the whole procedure right away. Follow a few instructions and feel free to concentrate on some other activity. To be more exact, you are required to fill in the order form and to pay for the sample. The rest is no longer your problem to solve.

What is important to remember is that you can freely address your request to us anytime as we offer our services all year round. Well, it is really beneficial for a student. We do our best to satisfy all your needs and to meet all your demands. Get one of your tasks completed with our high-quality academic writing assistance and you will see for yourself that we keep all the promises we give. Having an agency like ours on hand presupposes the studying process will get easier from now on. So, do not hesitate to become one of those students who have enough time for all spheres of their life. You can do that too. Simply entrust the accomplishment of your academic writing tasks to us and we will take care of them.

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged | Comments Off on Thesis statement for sale

Speech topics

 

Quite often you are given the opportunity to choose the topic to write a speech on yourself. If that is the case, there is a lot of speech topics to select from which is great as you will be able to find something interesting to write about. To be more precise, you might find it quite absorbing to dwell upon juvenile sentence and whether it is more a good thing or vice versa. Obviously, you will need to present both pros and cons and come to the conclusion if that is possible.

Another controversial issue is death penalty. There has never been a unanimous opinion on that one. Yet, you will definitely learn more, having conducted thorough research on this subject. Speaking about other ideas for your speech, you might consider writing a paper on the importance of blood donation. You will need to provide a lot of statistic data, though. One of your goals will be to prove why it is so significant.

All in all, there is a lot to choose from. Yet, another problem occurs when you have no ideas on the issue you have picked. If you are currently having difficulties with your task, do not forget that the writers at our custom paper writing agency are eager to help you all year round. That is why, feel free to contact us and to place your order. The process is easy and does not take much time. What it means is that you will be through with it right away. Spend the rest of your leisure time in any way you want. We are going to take care of the writing process.

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged | Comments Off on Speech topics

Charter schools essay sample

 

A charter school is an educational institution that receives public funding but functions independently from the established public school system within which it is located. These schools are an example of alternative education.

Charter schools have more freedom to be independent. Yet, they still remain public schools and it presupposes that they are open to children, do not have special entrance requirements as well as do not charge tuition. The main purpose of any charter school is to give parents the freedom of choice. Studying at charter schools allows to meet child’s specific needs better. School leaders at such schools have freedom to do what it takes or even more so that to help your child succeed. Public schools cannot do that. It is impossible even physically.

Charter schools give an opportunity to achieve high goals as they give access to broader knowledge. What is more, they raise the bar which creates the desire to do more, to be more and to achieve more. As a result, a huge amount of children who have studied at charter schools are accepted into colleges and universities with ease. Do not hesitate to find out more about charter schools at … ordercustompaper.com

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged | Comments Off on Charter schools essay sample

Persuasive essay topics

 

Got to look for persuasive essay topics on the internet? Well, we have a great alternative to paper writing for you. The thing is that you do not necessarily have to deal with every assignment by yourself. What is more, you live in times of technological progress. There are lots of available options you can easily use. One of them is the services our paper writing agency offers.

To be more precise, we help students deal with their paper writing assignments. Thus, we know how to cope even with the most complex issue. Besides, we hire expert writers who have all necessary knowledge in their areas of expertise. Therefore, you have no reason to be worried. Just address your request to us and you will be provided with a top quality sample right on time.

Then, start planning which activity you want to spend your leisure time on. We will take care of the writing process which presupposes that you can freely go have some fun. Probably, you have been meaning to get together with your friends. Well, right now you can easily do that. Let us assist you with the writing process. We have been working in this field for years. Thus, we know how to meet all stipulated requirements. Well, you will make sure in that yourself as soon as the order is completed. Another reason why you can fully rely on our agency is that we know how to keep all those promises we give. Therefore, do not hesitate with the order process and you will get lots of benefits we offer. Make the studying process much simpler. There are only a few steps to follow.

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged | Comments Off on Persuasive essay topics